Klub Haus Buku

30 Juni 2008

Rise and fall and rise of China to great power

Filed under: Resensi Buku — opungregar @ 23:10
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By CARL HARTMAN, Associated Press Writer Fri Jun 27, 2:04 PM ET

“Modern China: The Fall and Rise of a Great Power, 1850 to the Present” (Ecco. 763 pages. $34.95), by Jonathan Fenby: In 1776, the 13 American colonies began their two-century march to making the United States the world’s only remaining superpower.

Coincidentally, that was the year when Edward Gibbon began publishing his six-volume “Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire,” detailing the millennium-long collapse of a superpower into a welter of European, Asian and African states.

Things move faster now. The first American edition of “Modern China: The Fall and Rise of a Great Power” expounds both processes in one hefty but highly colorful tome, covering a shorter period than it took the American epic to unfold.

The new book is by Jonathan Fenby, veteran editor of The Observer in London and the South China Morning Post in Hong Kong.

China’s empire, 2,100 years old, was the first of a dozen to die in the 1900s. The United States had taken over what was left of Spain’s holdings — Cuba, The Philippines, Puerto Rico — just before the century began. The Americans didn’t impose harsh imperial rule but their wealth, military might, films and music deeply fascinated the rest of the world. Few except Americans themselves were shocked to hear talk of an “American empire.”

So far in the 21st century, none of the imperial corpses has shown clear signs of resurrection — certainly nothing like China‘s spectacular reincarnation. Much of Fenby’s introduction could be titled “Watch Out, America!”

“In 2007, for the first time since the 1930s, another country contributed more to global growth than the United States,” it says. “A Gallup poll in early 2008 reported that 40 percent of Americans considered the (People’s Republic of China) to be the world’s leading economic power, while only 33 percent chose their own country.”

Fenby’s history starts in 1850 when China was already far along in decline, due to graft, disunity, incursions by foreign powers and sheer obsolescence. The United States was stretching its international muscle: It had just conquered nearly half of Mexico.

In a south China village, a schoolteacher who failed the civil service exam proclaimed himself son of the Christian God. A vision had shown him a golden-haired man who told him to wipe out the demons on Earth. He decided the demons were the Manchus who had conquered China 200 years before. His 100,000 man army took the imperial summer capital of Nanjing, but in 15 years, Hong Xiuquan’s followers failed to unite and oust the Manchus.

The revolt overlapped the American Civil War. In thickly populated China, it proved even bloodier: The mandarin who suppressed it in Canton boasted of beheading 100,000 out of a million townspeople killed.

After nearly two more decades of disaster, 5-year-old Emperor Pu Yi “abdicated” with no successor. Sun Yat-sen proclaimed a republic but it was weak and plagued by what Fenby calls a decade of anarchy. A map at the start of the book outlines a dozen separate areas of this war lord period.

China joined the Allies against Germany in World War I. But its effort did little to reduce the influence of Japan — also an ally. In 1937, Japan invaded China again, an invasion that lasted 14 years, until Japan’s defeat in World war II.

Chiang Kai-shek, a successor to Sun, at first cooperated with the Communist Party and its Russian supporters, then ousted it in a coup. After the Japanese defeat, Chiang fought a civil war against the Communists that ended with his defeat and flight to Taiwan.

Over the next 60 years Mao Zedong and succeeding Communist rulers suppressed almost all opposition on the mainland. They freed private markets but kept much production in government hands, promoted trade with the United States and owed the United States more than $1.5 trillion. They reclaimed Hong Kong from Britain and Macau from Portugal and threatened Taiwan, which is protected largely by the United States.

Meanwhile they went on building their armed forces and nuclear weapons, preparing to celebrate their status by hosting the 2008 Olympics.

11 Komentar »

  1. Dewasa ini ramai dibicarakan tentang kemajuan Cina yang sangat pesat, sangkin pessatnya membuat negara paling kuat seperti Amerika Serikat harap-harap cemas. Bahwa Cina modern tidak dapat dianggap enteng lagi. Negeri ini punya kekuatan besar, anggaran militernya sangat gemuk, mereka memiliki surplus simpanan Bank, ke depan Cina akan menjadi pasar konsumer terbesar di dunia. Saat ini cadangan devisa Cina terbesar di dunia.Jonathan Fenby, penulis buku berjudul Cina Modern, adalah seorang editor kawakan dari The Observer di London dan the South China Morning Post di Hong Kong. Buku yang sangat hebat dan luar biasa. Sekarang ini Cina menyandang predikat ekonomi kedua terbesar setelah Amerika Serikat.

    Komentar oleh Drs. Adripen, M.Pd — 2 Juli 2008 @ 23:47 | Balas

  2. Kebangkitan Cina sebagai superpower ekonomi dunia memang luar biasa mencengangkan mata dunia. Tetapi dibalik kemajuan-kemajuan ekonomi yang dicapainya, juga menyisakan persoalan yang juga tidak kalah pentingnya untuk segera dan harus di atasi. Ketidak harmonisan antara sistem politik dan ekonomi Cina menjadi masalah utama yang memerlukan peninjauan kembali. Tidak adanya mekanisme chek and balance dalam pengaturan dan mengawasi perekonomian kapitalis kemajuan itu di pandang sebagai tidak efisien. Hal ini digambarkan secara jelas oleh James Kynge, yang dicontohkannya pada masalah limbah yang dihasilkan oleh proyek akbar rekayasa politik.

    Komentar oleh Paramana Setiawan, S.Sos, M.Si — 3 Juli 2008 @ 01:04 | Balas

  3. Mengapa sebagian orang susah sukses dan sebagian yang lain mudah sukses? Inilah rahasianya bagi orang beriman. Menyerahkan diri kepada Tuhan. Menjalani hidup hanya untuk-Nya dengan mengandalkan bimbingan dan bantuan-Nya di semua bidang kehidupan. Itulah inti ikhlas— ruh segala amal. Selain menjadi penentu diterima-tidaknya amal kita di sisi Allah, ikhlas sejatinya merupakan fitrah kita yang murni dan ilahi. Melatih hati yang ikhlas berarti kita mengakses sumber kebahagiaan dan kesuksesan kita sendiri. Tapi, ikhlas seperti apa? Bagaimana caranya? Bukankah ikhlas sudah menjadi kata populer yang nyaris kehilangan makna sejatinya? Lahir dari kedalaman makrifat seorang psikolog-muslim klasik, buku ini mengupas tuntas rahasia ikhlas. Ciri- ciri ikhlas, tingkatan, dan cara meraihnya diulas luas berlandaskan Quran, hadis, dan pengalaman ulama yang ahli di bidang manajemen hati. “Berinteraksi lah dengan hati Anda,” tutur Syekh al-Makki, “sapu kotorannya dan sirami benih kekilauannya sehingga setiap perbuatan baik senantiasa memancar dari hati yang tulus!” ***

    Komentar oleh Haidar Paseba — 3 Juli 2008 @ 01:47 | Balas

  4. Cina modern, memang berbeda dengan Cina di masa lalu. Kemajuan yang dicapainya membuat banyak orang tersentak. Tetapi dibalik kemoderanan dan kemajuan itu ada rasa pilu dan membuat penduduk cina, khususnya di wilayah-wilayah pedesaan sangat menyedihkan. Kisah nyata dalam China Undercover, membuat kita terenyuh ketika kita dihadapkan pada setumpuk persoalan keseheraian rakyat cina.

    Komentar oleh Dwi Irwanti — 18 Juli 2008 @ 07:37 | Balas

  5. “After the adoption of these measures, we have seen visible improvements,” Du Shaozhong, deputy director of Beijing’s Environmental Protection Bureau, told a news conference.
    There have been 25 days of clean air in July, two more than the same period last year, he said. Du did not say what constituted clean air, but said since July 1, major pollutants have been reduced by 15 to 20 percent.
    Tian Jun, 26, who works in sales at a downtown hotel, said Beijing’s air had improved overall in the last three to five years. The Olympics have helped because they enabled the government to move industries outside of the city and plant more trees, as well as limit the number of cars, he said.

    Komentar oleh opungregar — 30 Juli 2008 @ 01:05 | Balas

  6. Cina tepis kritik soal HAM *Pemerintah Cina menolak kritik atas hak azazi manusia negara itu seperti dilontarkan oleh lembaga HAM Amnesty International

    Komentar oleh BBC Indonesia — 30 Juli 2008 @ 14:30 | Balas

  7. isa tiket Olimpiade jadi rebutan *Ribuan warga Cina membanjiri loket penjualan tiket di Beijing untuk bisa mendapatkan tiket event Olimpiade yang masih tersisa.

    Komentar oleh BBC Indonesia — 30 Juli 2008 @ 17:15 | Balas

  8. “Buku ini patut kita pelajari agar semangat perubahan bangsa India dan Cina menulari kita untuk berubah menjadi bangsa yang lebih maju dan adaptif dalam abad ke-21 ini.”
    –Rhenald Kasali–

    Komentar oleh Quacana Promotion — 5 Agustus 2008 @ 14:53 | Balas

  9. “Sebuah laporan penting tentang perubahan besar dan mengejutkan yang terjadi pada India dan Cina. Kemajuan ekonomi keduanya mulai mengancam negara-negara Barat.”
    –Kompas–

    Komentar oleh Quacana Promotion — 5 Agustus 2008 @ 14:54 | Balas

  10. “Cina tumbuh amat pesat, menjadi pusat manufakturing baru dunia, bahkan disebut sebagai superpower baru. India adalah superpower yang lain, tetapi ia memilih menjadi pusat jasa dunia. Jasa outsourcing India telah mengubah cara bisnis masa kini, terutama dalam bidang Teknologi Informasi dan Komunikasi.”
    –Hermawan Kartajaya dan Philip Kotler–

    Komentar oleh Quacana Promotion — 5 Agustus 2008 @ 14:58 | Balas

  11. Apa rahasianya? Dalam berbisnis, orang-orang China memegang teguh prinsip-prinsip dagang yang diwariskan oleh para leluhur mereka sejak ribuan tahun lalu. Prinsip-prinsip inilah yang menjadi “senjata” mereka dalam berbisnis. Prinsip-prinsip ini pula yang kini menjadikan negara China (RRC) sebagai salah satu raksasa ekonomi dunia.

    Komentar oleh Zahra Book Store — 18 Agustus 2008 @ 00:25 | Balas


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